3.Safety in our environment


Safety in our environment

First aid is an immediate assistance care given to a sick or injured person before getting professional medical help.


  • It helps to save life
  • It help to prevents the victim’s condition from become worse
  • It also promote recovery
  • It help reduce pain and suffering
  • It help to reassures the victim

THE FIRST AID KIT The first aid kit is the small box which contains item that is for providing first aid. This box should be clearly labeled “first aid” and stored in a safe and easily accessible place for instance on a shelf on the wall in a laboratory or in a staff room.



1Plaster or adhesive bandageCovering small wounds
2Sterile gauzeCovering wounds to protect them for dirty and germs
3AntisepticCleaning wounds to kill germs
4SoapWashing hands/ wounds and equipment
5pain killersRelieving painNote: they should be placed regularly
6scissor and razor bladeCutting dressing materials
70safety pinsSecuring bandage
8BandagesKeeping dressing in place and immobilizing injured limbs
9cotton woolCleaning and drying wounds
10ThermometerTaking body temperature
11Disposable sterile glovesPreventing direct contact with victim’s body fluids
12petroleum jellySmoothing and chapped skin
13TorchAs a source of light
14WhistleBlown to call for help
15SplintsTo kill germ in wound


  1. You should induce vomiting, if a person has swallowed kerosene TRUE.
  2. First aid helps to rescue the victim TRUE.
  3. You should remove bee stings, using a needle FALSE.
  4. Before taking a snake bite victim to hospital you must first capture the snake TRUE.
  5. It is important to reduce the rate at which poison spread in the body TRUE.
  6. You should move a victim of electric shock using a metal object FALSE.
  7. A person who is nose bleeding should lie down TRUE.
  8. We can use clean water, salt and sugar to make a rehydration drink for person who has vomited TRUE.
  9. The following are First Aid procedure that can help people in various situations;

Bee sting

Treatment When a person is stung by a bee sting remains on the skin.Remove the sting by scraping gently using a blunt object such as a plastic card

  • Do not use your fingers or sharp object because this make Bee sting to release more venom into the body.
  • Wash the sting area with soap and water.
  • Apply baking soda paste or salt water on the bee sting.
  • The sting acidic baking soda/salt is base and it neutralizes the acid.
  • Apply a cold compress to relieve pain and swelling

Note:If a victim develops allergic reaction, take the person to hospital immediately.

Electric shock This is a sudden painful feeling that somebody gets when electricity passes through the body. Electric shock is caused by touching or stepping an exposed to naked electricity live cable

Treatment Remove the patient from the source of the dangerous.

  1. Switching off the electricity current
  2. Protecting yourself with a dry insulation materials such as rubber gloves or wrap your hand in dry clothing
  3. Loosen any light clothing around the neck, chest and waist
  4. Start artificial respiration immediately if the victim is unconscious
  5. Take the patient to the hospital immediately


This is the sudden violent disturbance of the mind or emotions.

Causes of Shock

  • Bad news
  • A frightening traumatic scene
  • Severe illness
  • Dehydration
  • Severe allergic reaction
  • Heavy bleeding inside the body


  1. Have the person lie down with his feet higher than his head. However if he has a severe head injury put him a half sitting position.
  2. Stop any bleeding
  3. If the person feels cold, cover him with a blanket.
  4. If he conscious and able to drink, give him sips of water or other soft drinks.
  5. Keep calm and rescue the person
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Note:If the person is a conscious, lay he/she on his side with head low lifted back and to one side. If they seem to be shocked pull his tongue forward with your finger. Do not give him anything by the mouth until become conscious.


  1. First wash your hand with soap and water, then wash the abrasion gently and dry it
  2. Rub some gentian violet solution (GV) to keep it clean and dry more quickly
  3. When cleaning the wound be careful to clean all the dirty lift up and clean under any flaps of skin
  4. After the wound has been cleaned, place a piece of clean gauze or cloth over the top

Bleedinga) Nose bleeding     Nose bleeding may occur as a result of

  1. Blowing the nose too hard as a result of dried mucus
  2. A punch direct to the nose from another person
  3. High blood pressure
  4. Air pressure changes


  • Sit quietly
  • Blow the nose firmly for 10 minutes or until bleed stop it advisable to breathe through mouth.
  • If this does control bleeding pack the nostril a wrap of cotton. Leaving part of outside the nose it possible. First wet the cotton with hydrogen.

Muscle cramps and sprains


To vomit is to remove food from the stomach through the mouth. It can be caused by food poisoning, contaminated water, fever or excessive eating


The person should get adequate rest. Give lost of fluids make a rehydration drink by mixing 1 liter of clean water, 1.5 spoons of salt and 4to 5 spoon of sugar.

  1. Sprains

It’s possible to know whether a hand or foot is bruised, sprained or broken, it helps to have an x- ray. To release pain and swelling, keep the sprained part raised high. Put the ice, wrapped in a cloth or plastic bag or cold wet cloth over the swollen joint for 20 to 30 minutes. Once even hour (when the swelling is no longer getting worse, soak the sprain in hot water several times a day.

Muscle cramp        

Muscle cramp is sudden, involuntary and painful contractions of a single muscle or group of muscle. The cause of muscle cramps include

  1. Poor coordination of the muscle during exercise
  2. Cold
  3. Excessive loss of salt and body fluids due to too much sweating, severe diarrhea or persistent vomiting

Treatment foot muscle cramps

  • Help the victim to stand
  • When the first contraction is over, left the victim to sit down.
  • Straight on the victim knee and draw his or her foot firmly and steadily upward towards the shin
  • Massage the muscle
  • Get the medical help if the cramps do not stop

POISONING A poisoning is any substance that causes harm if it swelled inhale or absorbed into the body. If the poison has been breathed in move the person outside where there is plenty of fresh air, if the victim is not breathing start mouth to move resuscitation.If the person has been swallowed give a glass of milk or water or both. This help to dilute and neutralize the poison, don’t introduce vomiting if the poison is a corrosive. Introduce vomiting if the poison is none corrosive substances. Vomiting can be induced by putting your finger in the victim’s throat or by making the victims gargle soap water or raw egg yolk, take the person to hospital immediately.

SAFETY AT HOME AND SCHOOL Many accidents occur in our schools as well as at home, children handicapped are more to get accidents. The common accident at home and school including drowning poisoning, choking, cuts and scratches, falls, bites and electric shock.                                

Common accidents and how to prevent them

AccidentPreventing and safety and how to prevent them
Fire burns and scaldsSwitch off Bunsen burners and cookers which not in use
Drowning–          Don’t go swimming alone-          Use a bridge when crossing rivers and streams-          Avoid going near water bodies when its dark-          Don’t allow children to play near the water bodies-          Cover or fence all pools of water in the home or school
Falls–          always walk careful-          avoid playing dangerous games like climbing trees and walls-          put up signs to indicate where there stairs or steps-          do not run unnecessarily-          wipe spilled liquids on the floor immediately-          do not leave fruits and vegetable peels on the floor
Poisoning–          label all containers clearly-          store all poisonous substances in a safe lockable place when not in            use
Choking–          do not talk while eating-          sit up right when eating or drinking-          eat slowly and do not take part in eating competition-          do not give children small objects to play with as they could put                  them in the mouth
Bites and stings–          don’t irritate animals-          stay away from bee lives and wasp net-          cut bushes and fall grasses that could has dangerous animals
Cuts and stretches–          store sharp tools in the safe place-          property dispose of broken glass and empty tins-          do not walk bare foot outside-          do not plant thorny bushes very near-          do not give children sharp object play with
Electric shock–          switch off electrical appliance that are being used-          do not touch electrical equipments with your hands-          ensure all electrical appliances are properly installed-          do not push sharp object in to electric switch
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Waste: Refers to materials which are not needed.

Waste disposal: is way in which get rid of waste materials


We can classify waste according to its state

  1. Solid waste
  2. Liquid waste
  3. Gaseous waste
  4. Sludge waste

Solid waste Is a hard waste material e.g. House hold, garbage, mining waste, plastic, paper, glass, scrap metal, waste, tires empty cans and construction waste.

Liquid waste Liquid waste include urine, water from bathrooms, water from kitchen after washing utensils, liquid also come from industries e.g. chemical liquid waste.

Gaseous waste This is waste in gaseous form for example ammonia, carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide gases from materials and lead from petrol in motor vehicle. Gaseous waste is a major risk factor for both acute and chronic respiratory disease.

Sludge waste This is a thick soft and wet waste material usually a viscous material (flowing material) e.g. human waste, industrial waste which contain between 30/0 to 70/0 water. Waste from living thing is biodegradable. They can be decomposed by bacterial and other living organism. E.g. food remain, paper and cotton clothes waste material such as plastics, glass, metal are biodegradable.

Waste disposal Waste disposal refers to collection, transportation, processing re-use and other activities that help us to get rid of waste. This helps to reduce adverse effects of waste on human health, animal’s health and environment.

Basic principle of waste disposal

The principles can help us to better manage our waste, these are:

  1. Reducing amount of waste we produce, for example we do not have to buy plastic bags each time we go shop we can carry a woven basket instead.
  2. Re- using items instead of throwing them a way for instead we can use an empty margarine container to store sugar.
  3. Recycling waste materials – some waste can be changed to other product for example, broken glass can be melt and use to make new glass bottles.

           Important of waste disposal

  1. It helps to provide pleasing environment
  2. It eliminates or reduces bad airs
  3. It minimizes the spread of infections and disease
  4. To prevent accident

Methods of waste disposal

 1. Burning
Waste such as papers, plastic, carton – boxes, empty milk packet, bread wrappers,     other are burnt to ashes.        

2. Burying This is used to dispose in organic refuse such as empty containers of insecticides, used torch batteries, broken bottles, pots, plates, cups and spoon.Burying can take the following form- Pit latrine The sewage in pit is decayed by bacteria, when the pit is full it’s covered by with soil and a new latrine is dug– Tipping and landfills When car [truck] come and collect waste and take it to dumping site we called it tippingDamping can be in form of a dump or landfill.A landfill is place where solid waste buried in the ground.

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3. Animals feeds Organic refuse such as vegetable, fruit, potato and banana, peelings, cabbage, and   spinach leaves are feed to goats, sheep, cattle, poultry and also pigs. Bones are dried and ground into powder which is dog food.        

4. Compost manure After separating inorganic refuse from organic. A place of one meter deep is dug where the organic refuse is dumped to decompose, to keep away flies reduce smell and other health hazards, a thin layer of wood ashes and sock is used to cover the refuse. After the refuse decomposes, it’s used by farmer as compost manure which adds soil fertile.

  5.Recycling To recycle to turn waste material into useful that can be used again. Plastic, glass, paper, metal and rubber item can be recycle for example paper can be converted to tissue paper or news print paper, worm out tires can be retreated and re- used, plastic items old glass bottles can crushed and made into new bottles.

6. Incinerating To incinerate is to burn something until it completely destroyed. This process is carried out in an incinerator. Incinerator is usually done for hazardous material such as clinical waste.        

7. Garbage collection Garbage collection in urban areas is done by local authorities, local authorities provide refuse bins which a commonly paced at strategic places in towns. Garbage disposal are through landfill and incineration.


  1. Kill aquatic organism (animals found in water) e.g. empty container after rain become breeding places e.g. mosquito, cockroaches.
  2. Poor waste disposal causes air pollution result to respiratory disease.
  3. Can causes accident in home e.g. fresh peeling of fruits and vegetable, and potatoes on the floor can cause slivering and falls down breaking his/her leg broken glass can cut people.
  4. Organic waste when decomposing cause bad smell.
  5. Causes epidemic diseases such as cholera and typhoid.
  6. Can harm wildlife and domestic animals. E.g. when cow eat plastic, bags, suffocate or block the digestive system and cause death.
  7. Block drainage system can cause flooding
  8. Degrade the natural beauty of the environment.
  9. Can cause Gene mutation.

How to reduce waste product

  1. Use cloth instead of paper to wipe surface e.g. window and furniture. It’s must cheaper in the long run and reduces the amount of waste paper in the environment.
  2. Invest in a set of cloth or woven shopping bags.
  3. Buy rechargeable batteries and a battery charger instead of disposable batteries.
  4. Collect and use plastic container to store food.
  5. Initiate awareness campaigns in your community on the proper ways of disposing waste.
  6. Use plastic that can be recycled or re – used and buy products made from recycled materials

Symbol of recycled material

Why waste product is a problem

  • Peoples bad habits for example dumping waste on foot paths, on the roadside and using excessive packaging for example wrapping a piece of candy to layers of plastic.
  • In adequate disposal facilities make waste disposal a problem.
  • Failure by the local authorities to enforce effects punishment on those who failed to proper waste disposal.
  • Poor infrastructure/ poor settlement planning render waste collection.                          

Why increase of waste output now today?

  • Increase of population and new settlement.
  • Increased consumption rate more disposable packaging and foot waste.
  • Technical advancement cause nuclear waste.

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