Laboratory is a special room or place where equipments and chemicals are kept for the purpose of experimentation of a given matter.
Examples of Laboratory are;
- Clinical laboratory
- Physics laboratory.
- Biology laboratory.
- Chemistry laboratory.
Physics laboratory – Is a special room or place where physics equipments are kept and experiments are being conducted.
Laboratory rules – are the guidelines to be followed in the laboratory in order to reduce risks of accidents.
Physics laboratory rules;
The following are some of the physics laboratory rules.
- Don’t enter in the laboratory without permission from your teacher or laboratory assistance.
- Don’t perform any experiment in the laboratory without permission from your teacher or laboratory assistance.
- Unnecessary movements are not allowed.
- All exits must be clear of abstraction/ obstacle.
- Any damages that may occur must be reported immediately to the laboratory attendant technician.
- All damaged or broken apparatus must be well deposited to a proper place.
- Never use free hand to hold hot objects.
- Replace immediately the cover or stopper of the particular chemical soon after use.
- After experiment, clean the bench and leave it dry and well arranged.
- All connections must be checked by laboratory attendant/technician in case of electrical experiments.
THE SAFETY MEASURES IN THE PHYSICS LABORATORY
In addition to physics laboratory rules individuals working in the laboratory must be aware of safety measures for science laboratory especially physics laboratory.
These safety measures include :
- All experiments which produce poisonous fumes must be conducted in the fume chamber
- The laboratory floor should not be polished to avoid slippery.
- The laboratory should have large windows and doors which should be opened outwards.
- Ensure the fire extinguishers are fitted in an appropriate place ready to be accessed in case of fire accidents.
- In a storage building, physics laboratory should be in the lowest floor.
FIRST AID AND FIRST AID KIT
First aid – is an immediate help given to a victim who has got an accident or injury before seeking for medicinal treatment in a hospital, medical cores or dispensaries.
-Helps to bring hope and encouragement to accident victims.
First Aid kit – is a small box containing necessary instruments and chemicals that can be used in first Aid.
- The following table summarizes the items which are found in the first Aid kit
|A pair of scissors||– To cut adhesive tapes, bandages and gauze.|
|Rolls of adhesive tape||– To hold firmly into wounds, bandages , gauze and cotton wool.|
|Bandages and cotton wool||– To clean and cover wounds.|
|Sterilized new razor blade||– Used in treating fresh or old wounds.|
|Sterilized gauze||– To clean and cover wounds.|
|Safety pin||– To tighten clip bandages.|
|One Jar petroleum jelly||– To apply on burns.|
|Iodine tincture||– To clean fresh cuts and bruises.|
|Soap||– To wash hand and wounds.|
|10. Antibiotic solution||– To clean wounds.|
Causes of Accident in science Laboratory
Some of the common causes include the following.
- Improper arrangement of laboratory instruments and chemicals.
- Playing, fighting or quarreling in the laboratory.
- Derailing from instruction for using chemical reagents or laboratory equipment.
- Performing unauthorized experiment or deviating from instruction of experiment.
- Insufficient personal protection when performing an experiment
- Improper handling of potentially dangerous chemicals.
- Ignoring laboratory rules.
Warning signs – are safety symbols used to warn a person about a possible dangers in a given area and when using the item.
- When one deals with laboratory activities he/she must take care of these Safety symbols.
In the laboratory safety symbols are used to warn a person and possible laboratory danger while he/she is in the laboratory and when using various chemicals.
The common safety symbols used in the laboratory are as following:
The following are the ways used to minimizing Accidents in the laboratory:
- Through following laboratory rules and safety precaution.
- By using protection wears before beginning any experiment.
Examples of protection wears are;
•Wearing aprons or laboratory coats- Protect people and themselves from chemicals and wearing a pair of plain plastics guards (Protects eyes from flying liquid or solid).
•Wearing gloves- Protects hands from corrosive chemicals
BASIC PRINCIPLES OF SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION
The process of scientific investigation involves the flow of five steps as follows:
- Problem: Is a situation where there is a gap between the presence of knowledge and the knowledge one needs to have.
- Observation: Are facts drawn by somebody using his / her sense organs (eye, nose, ear, skin, tongue).
- Hypothesis: Is a guessed answer to a problem. It is tested by experiment and it may be accepted, modified or rejected.
This is the organized way of testing the hypothesis. However experiment can be repeated several times before coming to the conclusion.
This is an actual and correct answer to a given problem which is obtained through experiment.
- Define the terms.
a) Laboratory: Is the special room or place where equipments and chemicals are kept for the purpose of experimentation of a given matter
.b) Physics Laboratory: Is a special room or place where the physics equipments are kept and experiments are conducted.
2. What are laboratory rules?
Laboratory rules are the guidelines to be followed in the laboratory in order to reduce risks of accident
3. Write down at least 7 rules in physical laboratory
- Don’t enter in the laboratory without permission.
- Unnecessary movement is not allowed.
- All exits must be clear of obstruction / obstacles.
- Do not do perform any experiment in the laboratory without permission.
- Never use free hand to hold hot objects.
- All damages that occur must be reported immediately to the laboratory attendant or technician.
- After experiment clean the bench and leave it dry, well arranged.
4. i) What is first aid?
Is an immediate help given to a victim who has got an accident or injury before seeking for medicinal treatment in a hospital, medical cores or dispensaries.
ii) Why is first aid important?
a. Reduces pain
b. Gives hope to accident victims.
5. Define First aid kit?
Is a small box containing necessary instruments and chemicals that can be used in first Aid.
6. List down six components of first aid.
a. A pair of scissors
b. Rolls of adhesive tape
c. Bandage cotton wool
d. Sterilized new razor blade
e. Safety pin
7. a) What is warning?
Are safety symbols used to warn a person about a possible dangers in a given area and when using the item
b) Draw three warning signs and its meaning
8. What is the meaning of scientific investigation? This is the investigation done scientifically to find out the solution of a problem.
9. Mention five steps of scientific investigation
10. State uses of :
- Petroleum jelly – to apply on burns
- Gentian violet solution – to clean wounds.
- Methylated spirit- to clean wounds.
- Soap – to wash hands and wounds.