1.Introduction to biology & scientific process in biology

Introduction to biology

What is biology?
Biology is a study of living things or organism and non living things.Living things include bacteria, fungi, animals, plants etc.

Biology is derived/comes from two Greek words;                  

Bios – means “Life”                   

Logos – means “study”

The people who study biology are called Biologist. Very small organism are called microorganism. The simplest living things are made up of one cell these are called unicellular organism e.g. bacteria, protozoan and amoeba (also are called microscope organism). Large organisms are made up of many cells these are called multicellular organism e.g. fish, trees, man.


Life is the state of living which plants, animals, and other living organisms have before they die. The basic unit of life is cell. All living things are made up of cell, cell are so small that they cannot be seen with marked eye.


There are two main branches of biology

(1) Botany – Study of plants

(2) Zoology – Study of animals only

However there are many minor branches of biology. That deal with different aspects of living things

1.AnatomyPhysical structure of organisms
2.CytologyDeals with cell
3.EcologyRelation between organisms and their Environment
4.MycologyDeals with fungi
5.TaxonomyHow organisms are named and groups
6.PhysiologyHow organisms body parts function
7.ParasitologyDeals with parasites
8.ImmunologyThe body defense against infections and disease


  1. It helps a man to understand himself/herself better
  2. Knowledge of biology enables human being to conserve the environment.
  3. It helps man to evaluate environment uses us pollution, global warming and environmental degradations.
  4. Biology help to understand cause, symptoms, method of transmission, prevention, and

Treatment of diseases this improve the standard of living.

  1. It provides answer to fundamental questions.
  2. It helps us to enter in careers such as medicine, agriculture, reproductive, health and genetic Engineering.
  3. Biology helps us to appreciate nature.

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BIOLOGY AND OTHER SUBJECT FIELDBiology related to many other field of study such as agriculture, medicine, pharmacy such as veterinary, medicine and nutrition.


Biology research finding on crops and livestock have led to improve agriculture production.


Medicine is the study of prevention and treatment and cure of disease.


Biology is used by dieticians to determine the kind of diets suitable for people with different health problems.


Biologists have developed varieties of trees that grow well in dry areas, also that mature fast so as to prevent desertification.      


Living things have characteristics which make them different from non- living thing. These are


All living things take in food or make their own food. Food enables living things to grow, develop and carry out on life process


Respiration is a process by which food substances are broken down to produce useful energy in a cell.    


Is the process by which excess waste or harmful material resulting from the chemical reaction occur in body cell are removed out of body


It is the ability of an organism to detect and respond to a change in its environment


Growth is an increase in size and mass organism become more complicated and more efficient.    


Is an action of changing position, movement with involve the whole body is called locomotion. E.g. Animals but plants just show movement in term of growth of their body parts. E.g. roots, shoots


Is the process of living things give rise to new individuals of their own kinds. This insures that this is continued existence of the specie’s and life forms.Non- Living things are referred to us inanimateLiving things are referred to as animate


Biology is a practical science that involves carrying out experiment, observation, measuring and experimentation are skills that we need when studying Biology, and we use our sense organs to make observation.These organs are;

  1. The eyes for seeing
  2. The nose for smelling
  3. The ears for hearing
  4. The tongue for tasting
  5. The skin for feeling

Scientific measurements are taken using specific instrument and units.                              

Some basic biological measures are

             MEASURE       INSTRUMENT           SI UNIT
MassBeam balanceKilogram (kg)
TimeWatchSecond (s)
LengthRuler, TemperatureMeter (m)
TemperatureThermometerKelvin (K) – Degrees Celsius                 -Degree Fahrenheit

In biological investigation like in any other scientific research, methods are listed. The scientific method is a set of step that scientist use to study things.

Those methods are

1. Problem identification

2. Formulation of hypothesis

3. Experimentation

4. Observation and data collection

5. Interpretation of data.

6. Conclusion

Problem identification

In day today life one time comes across question which require explanation or problem which need solution or something to prove e.g. it is observed that buffaloes in Serengeti park are dying at great rate what would be the cause of death or there is poor harvesting or Earth warms are mostly found in the soil wells handed are as why?                               

Formulation of hypothesis

A hypothesis is a suggestion of the answer to the question asked. It is an intelligent guess that trees explain as an observation for example Earth worms prefer shaded areas because in the soil shaded there is more moist. A hypothesis can’t be termed as a biological acceptable explain action. Therefore experiment should be designed prove or disapproved if hypothesis is correct we say it is accepted, if disapproved we say rejected


An experiment is a test that is carried out under controlled conditions to determine whether a hypothesis is correct or not in any experiment. There is control experiment and experiment test. Example of experiment; Earth worms prefer moist or dry condition


Observation and data collection

The scientist they observe what happens from the time the experiment is set up to the time it ends. It is important to note all the changes made from the beginning to the end of the experiment and recording

Interpretation of data

At the end of experiment the scientist analyses the observations and Data recorded. The scientist may look for pattern or in the data              


A conclusion is a statement that summaries what a scientist has learnt from an experiment when scientist read conclusion. They taste whether the data or information collected support the hypothesis (accepted) or not support the hypothesis (reject) if so another hypothesis must be formulated and repeat the whole experiments


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